Interaction Details

Finasteride is classified as belonging to the following category: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (Cyp3A4) Substrates

Grapefruit juice can increase levels of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Clinical research shows that grapefruit juice can inhibit CYP3A4 metabolism of drugs, causing increased drug levels and potentially increasing the risk of adverse effects. When taken orally, effects of grapefruit juice on CYP3A4 levels appear to last at least 48 hours. Grapefruit's ability to inhibit CYP3A4 has even been harnessed to intentionally increase levels of venetoclax, which is metabolized by CYP3A4, in an elderly patient with acute myeloid leukemia who could not afford full dose venetoclax. The lower dose of venetoclax in combination with grapefruit juice resulted in serum levels of venetoclax in the therapeutic reference range of full dose venetoclax and positive treatment outcomes for the patient.
Professional consensus recommends the consideration of patient age, existing medical conditions, additional medications, and the potential for additive adverse effects when evaluating the risks of concomitant use of grapefruit juice with any medication metabolized by CYP3A4. While all patients are at risk for interactions with grapefruit juice consumption, patients older than 70 years of age and those taking multiple medications are at the greatest risk for a serious or fatal interaction with grapefruit juice.

Interaction Rating

Major

Likelihood of Occurrence

Likely

Well-controlled human studies have demonstrated the likely existence of this interaction

Pharmacist Analysis

It's interesting to note that finasteride, despite being metabolized by CYP3A4, does not exhibit clinically significant interactions when co-administered with grapefruit juice or other substances known to inhibit this enzyme.

This can be attributed to finasteride's unique hormonal mechanism of action and its relatively large therapeutic window, which provide a buffer against potential interactions.

Comprehensive clinical trials, including a 4-year study involving over 3,000 males, have not identified any meaningful drug interactions with finasteride. This includes tests with various drugs like antipyrine, digoxin, propranolol, theophylline, and warfarin, all of which showed no significant interactions.

Although our interaction checker does this an interaction between grapefruit and finasteride based on their known metabolism and pharmacokinetics, it doesn't appear to be clinically significant in this case.

The lack of finasteride drug interactions is specifically noted in the prescribing information for the drug (LABEL (fda.gov)).

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References

  • Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice increases serum concentrations of atorvastatin and has no effect on pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;66:118-27.
  • Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice-simvastatin interaction: effect on serum concentrations of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;64:477-83.
  • Jetter A, Kinzig-Schippers M, Walchner-Bonjean M, et al. Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;71:21-9.
  • Fuhr U, Muller-Peltzer H, Kern R, et al. Effects of grapefruit juice and smoking on verapamil concentrations in steady state. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002;58:45-53.
  • Kanazawa S, Ohkubo T, Sugawara K. The effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001;56:799-803.
  • Charbit, B., Becquemont, L., Lepere, B., Peytavin, G., and Funck-Brentano, C. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between grapefruit juice and halofantrine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72(5):514-523.
  • Tanaka S, Uchida S, Miyakawa S, Inui N, Takeuchi K, Watanabe H, Namiki N. Comparison of inhibitory duration of grapefruit juice on organic anion-transporting polypeptide and cytochrome P450 3A4. Biol Pharm Bull. 2013;36(12):1936-41.
  • Bailey DG. Predicting clinical relevance of grapefruit-drug interactions: a complicated process. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2017 Apr;42(2):125-27.
  • Mouly S, Lloret-Linares C, Sellire PO, Sene D, Bergmann JF. Is the clinical relevance of drug-food and drug-herb interactions limited to grapefruit juice and Saint-John's Wort? Pharmacol Res. 2017 Apr;118:82-92.
  • Loretz C, Ho MD, Alam N, Mitchell W, Li AP. Application of cryopreserved human intestinal mucosa and cryopreserved human enterocytes in the evaluation of herb-drug interactions: evaluation of CYP3A inhibitory potential of grapefruit juice and commercial f
  • Long Z, Ruan M, Wu W, Zeng Q, Li Q, Huang Z. The successful combination of grapefruit juice and venetoclax in an unfit acute myeloid leukemia patient with adverse risk: A case report. Front Oncol 2022;12:912696.

Grapefruit Overview

Grapefruit Grapefruit is a tropical citrus fruit known for its tart and tangy flavor. They are a good source of vitamin C and other nutrients, including vitamin A, potassium, and fiber. There are several varieties of grapefruits, including white, pink, and red. This color difference is mostly attributed to their respective lycopene content. White grapefruits are the most common and have a slightly bitter taste. Pink and red grapefruits are sweeter and have a more complex flavor. Grapefruit and grapefruit seed extract is commonly used in dietary supplements for a variety of conditions, such as yeast infections, urinary tract infections, and respiratory infections. It is also sometimes used to treat digestive problems, such as diarrhea and indigestion. Drug interactions with grapefruit are quite prevalent and if you take prescription medication, you should talk with your doctor or pharmacist first before consuming grapefruit.
See More Information Regarding Grapefruit

Finasteride Overview

  • Finasteride (Proscar) is used alone or in combination with another medication (doxazosin [Cardura]) to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH, enlargement of the prostate gland). Finasteride is used to treat symptoms of BPH such as frequent and difficult urination and may reduce the chance of acute urinary retention (sudden inability to urinate). It also may decrease the chance that prostate surgery will be needed. Finasteride (Propecia) is also used to treat male pattern hair loss (gradual thinning of the hair on the scalp, leading to a receding hairline or balding on the top of the head in men.) Finasteride (Propecia) has not been shown to treat thinning hair at the temples and is not used to treat hair loss in women or children. Finasteride is in a class of medications called 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. Finasteride treats BPH by blocking the body's production of a male hormone that causes the prostate to enlarge. Finasteride treats male pattern hair loss by blocking the body's production of a male hormone in the scalp that stops hair growth.

See More Information Regarding Finasteride

Grapefruit - More Interactions

Grapefruit interacts with 959 drugs

Interaction Rating Key

These severity listings are for informational use only. Never start, stop or otherwise change your therapy before speaking with your provider.

Major The combined use of these agents is strongly discouraged as serious side effects or other negative outcomes could occur.
Moderate Use cautiously under the care of a healthcare professional or avoid this combination. A significant interaction or negative outcome could occur.
Minor Be aware that there is a chance of an interaction. Watch for warning signs of a potential interaction.
Unknown No interactions have been reported or no interaction data is currently available.

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Parts of this content are provided by the Therapeutic Research Center, LLC.

DISCLAIMER: Currently this does not check for drug-drug interactions. This is not an all-inclusive comprehensive list of potential interactions and is for informational purposes only. Not all interactions are known or well-reported in the scientific literature, and new interactions are continually being reported. Input is needed from a qualified healthcare provider including a pharmacist before starting any therapy. Application of clinical judgment is necessary.

© 2021 Therapeutic Research Center, LLC

Drug descriptions are provided by MedlinePlus.

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