Grapefruit - Gavreto (Pralsetinib) Interaction
Also Known As: Citrus paradisi
Brand names: Gavreto
Medical Content Editor Dr. Brian Staiger, PharmD
Last updated Jul 22, 2023
Pralsetinib is classified as belonging to the following category: Qt Interval-Prolonging Drugs
Grapefruit or grapefruit juice, especially if consumed in large amounts, can cause additive QT interval prolongation when taken with QT interval-prolonging drugs, potentially increasing the risk of ventricular arrhythmias.
Clinical research in healthy volunteers shows that drinking 6 liters of grapefruit juice over 6 hours prolonged the QTc by a peak amount of 14 milliseconds (ms). This prolongation was similar to the QT prolongation caused by the drug moxifloxacin. In individuals with long QT syndrome, a smaller dose of grapefruit juice, 1.5 liters, resulted in a greater peak QTc prolongation of about 30 ms. The effect of smaller quantities of grapefruit juice on the QT interval is unclear.
Likelihood of OccurrenceProbable
Interaction has not been documented in well-controlled studies, however, the interaction has been demonstrated in some small human studies or in controlled animal studies in conjunction with multiple case reports.
- Chorin E, Hochstadt A, Granot Y, et al. Grapefruit juice prolongs the QT interval of healthy volunteers and patients with long QT syndrome. Heart Rhythm. 2019. pii: S1547-5271(19)30368-6.
Pralsetinib is classified as belonging to the following category: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (Cyp3A4) Substrates
Grapefruit juice can increase levels of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Clinical research shows that grapefruit juice can inhibit CYP3A4 metabolism of drugs, causing increased drug levels and potentially increasing the risk of adverse effects. When taken orally, effects of grapefruit juice on CYP3A4 levels appear to last at least 48 hours.
Professional consensus recommends the consideration of patient age, existing medical conditions, additional medications, and the potential for additive adverse effects when evaluating the risks of concomitant use of grapefruit juice with any medication metabolized by CYP3A4. While all patients are at risk for interactions with grapefruit juice consumption, patients older than 70 years of age and those taking multiple medications are at the greatest risk for a serious or fatal interaction with grapefruit juice.
Likelihood of OccurrenceLikely
Well-controlled human studies have demonstrated the likely existence of this interaction
- Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice increases serum concentrations of atorvastatin and has no effect on pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;66:118-27.
- Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice-simvastatin interaction: effect on serum concentrations of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;64:477-83.
- Jetter A, Kinzig-Schippers M, Walchner-Bonjean M, et al. Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;71:21-9.
- Fuhr U, Muller-Peltzer H, Kern R, et al. Effects of grapefruit juice and smoking on verapamil concentrations in steady state. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002;58:45-53.
- Kanazawa S, Ohkubo T, Sugawara K. The effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001;56:799-803.
- Charbit, B., Becquemont, L., Lepere, B., Peytavin, G., and Funck-Brentano, C. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between grapefruit juice and halofantrine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72(5):514-523.
- Tanaka S, Uchida S, Miyakawa S, Inui N, Takeuchi K, Watanabe H, Namiki N. Comparison of inhibitory duration of grapefruit juice on organic anion-transporting polypeptide and cytochrome P450 3A4. Biol Pharm Bull. 2013;36(12):1936-41.
- Bailey DG. Predicting clinical relevance of grapefruit-drug interactions: a complicated process. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2017 Apr;42(2):125-27.
- Mouly S, Lloret-Linares C, Sellire PO, Sene D, Bergmann JF. Is the clinical relevance of drug-food and drug-herb interactions limited to grapefruit juice and Saint-John's Wort? Pharmacol Res. 2017 Apr;118:82-92.
- Loretz C, Ho MD, Alam N, Mitchell W, Li AP. Application of cryopreserved human intestinal mucosa and cryopreserved human enterocytes in the evaluation of herb-drug interactions: evaluation of CYP3A inhibitory potential of grapefruit juice and commercial f
Pralsetinib is classified as belonging to the following category: P-Glycoprotein Substrates
Grapefruit juice does not seem to affect renal P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Theoretically, it might inhibit intestinal P-gp, but evidence is conflicting.
While most in vitro research shows that grapefruit products inhibit P-gp,, research in humans is less clear. Two small clinical studies in healthy adults using digoxin as a probe substrate show that grapefruit juice does not inhibit P-gp in the kidneys. It is unclear whether this applies to intestinal P-gp, for which digoxin is not considered to be a sensitive probe. Grapefruit juice has been shown to reduce levels of fexofenadine, and increase levels of quinidine. However, as both of these drugs are also substrates of other enzymes and transporters, it is unclear what role, if any, intestinal P-gp has in these findings.
Likelihood of OccurrencePossible
Interaction has been documented in animal or in lab research, or the interaction has been documented in humans but is limited to case reports or conflicting clinical research exists
- Soldner A, Christians U, Susanto M, et al. Grapefruit juice activates P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport. Pharm Res 1999;16:478-85.
- Damkier P, Hansen LL, Brosen K. Effect of diclofenac, disulfiram, itraconazole, grapefruit juice and erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of quinidine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999;48:829-38.
- Bailey DG, Dresser GK, Munoz C, et al. Reduction of fexofenadine bioavailability by fruit juices. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001;69:P21.
- Edwards DJ, Fitzsimmons ME, Schuetz EG, et al. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice: effects on cyclosporine disposition, enterocyte CYP3A4, and P-glycoprotein. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;65:237-44.
- Becquemont L, Verstuyft C, Kerb R, et al. Effect of grapefruit juice on digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001;70:311-6.
- Dresser GK, Bailey DG, Leake BF, et al. Fruit juices inhibit organic anion transporting polypeptide-mediated drug uptake to decrease the oral availability of fexofenadine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;71:11-20.
- Parker RB, Yates CR, Soberman JE, Laizure SC. Effects of grapefruit juice on intestinal P-glycoprotein: evaluation using digoxin in humans. Pharmacotherapy 2003;23:979-87.
- Di Marco MP, Edwards DJ, Wainer IW, Ducharme MP. The effect of grapefruit juice and seville orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan: the role of gut CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Life Sci 2002;71:1149-60.
- Dresser GK, Kim RB, Bailey DG. Effect of grapefruit juice volume on the reduction of fexofenadine bioavailability: possible role of organic anion transporting polypeptides. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005;77:170-7.
- Min, D. I., Ku, Y. M., Geraets, D. R., and Lee, H. Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of quinidine in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 1996;36(5):469-476.
- Jia Y, Liu J, Xu J. Influence of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of triptolide in rats grapefruit juice on the effects of triptolide. Xenobiotica. 2017 Apr 16:1-5.
- Guideline on the investigation of drug interactions. CPMP/EWP/560/95/Rev. 1 Corr. 2. European Medicines Agency, 2015. Available at: https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/scientific-guideline/guideline-investigation-drug-interactions-revision-1_en.pdf (As
Pralsetinib is used to treat a certain type of non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in adults that has spread to other parts of the body. It is also used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer in adults and children 12 years of age and older that is getting worse or that has spread to other parts of the body. Pralsetinib is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer in adults and children 12 years of age and older that is getting worse or that has spread to other parts of the body and cannot be treated with radioactive iodine. Pralsetinib is in a class of medications called kinase inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of a certain naturally occurring substance that may be needed to help cancer cells multiply.
Grapefruit - More Interactions
Grapefruit interacts with 945 drugs
Interaction Rating Key
These severity listings are for informational use only. Never start, stop or otherwise change your therapy before speaking with your provider.
|Major||The combined use of these agents is strongly discouraged as serious side effects or other negative outcomes could occur.|
|Moderate||Use cautiously under the care of a healthcare professional or avoid this combination. A significant interaction or negative outcome could occur.|
|Minor||Be aware that there is a chance of an interaction. Watch for warning signs of a potential interaction.|
|Unknown||No interactions have been reported or no interaction data is currently available.|
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DISCLAIMER: Currently this does not check for drug-drug interactions. This is not an all-inclusive comprehensive list of potential interactions and is for informational purposes only. Not all interactions are known or well-reported in the scientific literature, and new interactions are continually being reported. Input is needed from a qualified healthcare provider including a pharmacist before starting any therapy. Application of clinical judgment is necessary.
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